Rapidly transitioning to clean and sustainable energy

I am an interdisciplinary researcher in renewable energy and environmental science, heading the Sustainable Energy Systems Unit in the Climate Policy Group at ETH Zürich's Department of Environmental Systems Science. Our research is on the global transition to a 100% clean and renewable energy system, and the technical, economic and policy barriers on the way to that goal.

Research spotlight: China's PV potential with pollution-free 1960s surface radiation

Historic (1960 – 2015) capacity factors (red) and SO2 (blue) and black carbon (black) emissions in China as a percentage of peak emissions in 1994 and 2005 respectively. Thin lines are annual, thick lines 5-year moving mean values. Adapted from Sweerts, Pfenninger, Yang, Folini, van der Zwaan and Wild (2019).

Using solar radiation data from 119 stations across China we show that photovoltaic electricity potential decreased on average by 11–15% between 1960 and 2015. Given the observed relation between surface radiation and emissions of sulphur dioxide and black carbon, reducing air pollution should let surface radiation increase. Reverting back to 1960s radiation levels could yield a 12–13% increase in China's solar electricity generation. → Sweerts, Pfenninger, Yang, Folini, van der Zwaan and Wild (2019), Nature Energy.

Open code and data

In the course of my work I created and lead development of the open-source energy system modelling tool Calliope. I am also the creator and lead developer of the Renewables.ninja platform to simulate wind and solar power plants worldwide. I am a member of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative, which promotes openness and transparency in energy system modelling, and of the Open Power System Data project, which provides a free and open data platform for power system modelling.


You can contact me by email. I am always interested to speak to enthusiastic students looking for thesis projects or research experience. Get in touch by email with a CV and some detail on your research interests.

Recent publications

  • Policy Decision Support for Renewables Deployment through Spatially Explicit Practically Optimal Alternatives. Francesco Lombardi, Bryn Pickering, Emanuela Colombo, Stefan Pfenninger. (2020). Joule. doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2020.08.002
  • Trade-Offs between Geographic Scale, Cost, and Infrastructure Requirements for Fully Renewable Electricity in Europe. Tim Tröndle, Johan Lilliestam, Stefano Marelli, Stefan Pfenninger. (2020). Joule. doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2020.07.018
  • On the Potential of “Photovoltaics + Electric Vehicles” for Deep Decarbonization of Kyoto’s Power Systems: Techno-Economic-Social Considerations. Takuro Kobashi, Takahiro Yoshida, Yoshiki Yamagata, Katsuhiko Naito, Stefan Pfenninger, Kelvin Say, Yasuhiro Takeda, Amanda Ahl, Masaru Yarime, Keishiro Hara. (2020). Applied Energy. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115419

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