2024The Role of Inter-Island Transmission in Full Decarbonisation Scenarios for Indonesia’s Power Sector
Jannis Langer, Francesco Lombardi, Stefan Pfenninger, Harkunti P. Rahayu, Muhammad Indra Al Irsyad, Kornelis Blok (2024).
Environmental Research: Energydoi: 10.1088/2753-3751/ad53cb
Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger: Understanding and Improving the Tractability of Large Energy System Models
Manuel Bröchin, Bryn Pickering, Tim Tröndle, Stefan Pfenninger (2024).
Energy, Sustainability and Societydoi: 10.1186/s13705-024-00458-z
The Potential Role of Airborne and Floating Wind in the North Sea Region
Hidde Vos, Francesco Lombardi, Rishikesh Joshi, Roland Schmehl, Stefan Pfenninger (2024).
Environmental Research: Energydoi: 10.1088/2753-3751/ad3fbc
Open Code and Data Are Not Enough: Understandability as Design Goal for Energy System Models
Stefan Pfenninger (2024).
Progress in Energydoi: 10.1088/2516-1083/ad371e
Land-Free Bioenergy from Circular Agroecology – A Diverse Option Space and Trade-Offs
Fei Wu, Stefan Pfenninger, Adrian Müller (2024).
Environmental Research Lettersdoi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ad33d5
Wind-Solar Technological, Spatial and Temporal Complementarities in Europe: A Portfolio Approach
Javier López Prol, Fernando de Llano Paz, Anxo Calvo-Silvosa, Stefan Pfenninger, Iain Staffell (2024).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
2023Identifying Energy Model Fingerprints in Mitigation Scenarios
Mark M. Dekker, Vassilis Daioglou, Robert Pietzcker, Renato Rodrigues, Harmen-Sytze de Boer, Francesco Dalla Longa, Laurent Drouet, Johannes Emmerling, Amir Fattahi, Theofano Fotiou, Panagiotis Fragkos, Oliver Fricko, Ema Gusheva, Mathijs Harmsen, Daniel Huppmann, Maria Kannavou, Volker Krey, Francesco Lombardi, Gunnar Luderer, Stefan Pfenninger, Ioannis Tsiropoulos, Behnam Zakeri, Bob van der Zwaan, Will Usher, Detlef van Vuuren (2023).
Nature Energydoi: 10.1038/s41560-023-01399-1
A Global Model of Hourly Space Heating and Cooling Demand at Multiple Spatial Scales
Iain Staffell, Stefan Pfenninger, Nathan Johnson (2023).
Nature Energydoi: 10.1038/s41560-023-01341-5
Challenges and Opportunities for Bioenergy in Europe: National Deployment, Policy Support, and Possible Future Roles
Fei Wu and Stefan Pfenninger (2023).
Bioresource Technology Reportsdoi: 10.1016/j.biteb.2023.101430
What Is Redundant and What Is Not? Computational Trade-Offs in Modelling to Generate Alternatives for Energy Infrastructure Deployment
Francesco Lombardi, Bryn Pickering, Stefan Pfenninger (2023).
Applied Energydoi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121002
Enhancing Drought Resilience and Energy Security through Complementing Hydro by Offshore Wind Power—The Case of Brazil
Paula Conde Santos Borba, Wilson C. Sousa, Milad Shadman, Stefan Pfenninger (2023).
Energy Conversion and Managementdoi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2022.116616
Strategic Uses for Ancillary Bioenergy in a Carbon-Neutral and Fossil-Free 2050 European Energy System
Fei Wu, Adrian Muller, Stefan Pfenninger (2023).
Environmental Research Lettersdoi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aca9e1
2022Enhanced Spatio-Temporal Electric Load Forecasts Using Less Data with Active Deep Learning
Arsam Aryandoust, Anthony Patt, Stefan Pfenninger (2022).
Nature Machine Intelligencedoi: 10.1038/s42256-022-00552-x
How Offshore Wind Could Become Economically Attractive in Low-Resource Regions like Indonesia
Jannis Langer, Sergio Simanjuntak, Stefan Pfenninger, Antonio Jarquin Laguna, George Lavidas, Henk Polinder, Jaco Quist, Harkunti Pertiwi Rahayu, Kornelis Blok (2022).
iSciencedoi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104945
Meteorologically-Informed Spatial Planning of European PV Deployment to Reduce Multiday Generation Variability
Dirk Mühlemann, Doris Folini, Stefan Pfenninger, Martin Wild, Jan Wohland (2022).
Earth's Futuredoi: 10.1029/2022EF002673
Diversity of Options to Eliminate Fossil Fuels and Reach Carbon Neutrality across the Entire European Energy System
Bryn Pickering, Francesco Lombardi, Stefan Pfenninger (2022).
Jouledoi: 10.1016/j.joule.2022.05.009
Open Energy System Modelling to Support the European Green Deal
Diana Süsser, Bryn Pickering, Ludwig Hülk, Stefan Pfenninger (2022).
F1000Researchdoi: 10.12688/f1000research.121619.1
High-Resolution Large-Scale Onshore Wind Energy Assessments: A Review of Potential Definitions, Methodologies and Future Research Needs
Russell McKenna, Stefan Pfenninger, Heidi Heinrichs, Johannes Schmidt, Iain Staffell, Christian Bauer, Katharina Gruber, Andrea N. Hahmann, Malte Jansen, Michael Klingler, Natascha Landwehr, Xiaoli Guo Larsén, Johan Lilliestam, Bryn Pickering, Martin Robinius, Tim Tröndle, Olga Turkovska, Sebastian Wehrle, Jann Michael Weinand, Jan Wohland (2022).
Renewable Energydoi: 10.1016/j.renene.2021.10.027
2021Mitigating a Century of European Renewable Variability with Transmission and Informed Siting
Jan Wohland, David J. Brayshaw, Stefan Pfenninger (2021).
Environmental Research Lettersdoi: 10.1088/1748-9326/abff89
Trends in Tools and Approaches for Modelling the Energy Transition
Miguel Chang, Jakob Zink Thellufsen, Behnam Zakeri, Bryn Pickering, Stefan Pfenninger, Henrik Lund, Poul Alberg Østergaard (2021).
Applied Energydoi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116731
2020Policy Decision Support for Renewables Deployment through Spatially Explicit Practically Optimal Alternatives
Francesco Lombardi, Bryn Pickering, Emanuela Colombo, Stefan Pfenninger (2020).
Jouledoi: 10.1016/j.joule.2020.08.002
Trade-Offs between Geographic Scale, Cost, and Infrastructure Requirements for Fully Renewable Electricity in Europe
Tim Tröndle, Johan Lilliestam, Stefano Marelli, Stefan Pfenninger (2020).
Jouledoi: 10.1016/j.joule.2020.07.018
On the Potential of “Photovoltaics + Electric Vehicles” for Deep Decarbonization of Kyoto’s Power Systems: Techno-economic-social Considerations
Takuro Kobashi, Takahiro Yoshida, Yoshiki Yamagata, Katsuhiko Naito, Stefan Pfenninger, Kelvin Say, Yasuhiro Takeda, Amanda Ahl, Masaru Yarime, Keishiro Hara (2020).
Applied Energydoi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115419
The Near- to Mid-Term Outlook for Concentrating Solar Power: Mostly Cloudy, Chance of Sun
Johan Lilliestam, Lana Ollier, Mercè Labordena, Stefan Pfenninger, Richard Thonig (2020).
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policydoi: 10.1080/15567249.2020.1773580
The NExus Solutions Tool (NEST) v1.0: An Open Platform for Optimizing Multi-Scale Energy–Water–Land System Transformations
Adriano Vinca, Simon Parkinson, Edward Byers, Peter Burek, Zarrar Khan, Volker Krey, Fabio A. Diuana, Yaoping Wang, Ansir Ilyas, Alexandre C. Köberle, Iain Staffell, Stefan Pfenninger, Abubakr Muhammad, Andrew Rowe, Roberto Schaeffer, Narasimha D. Rao, Yoshihide Wada, Ned Djilali, Keywan Riahi (2020).
Geoscientific Model Developmentdoi: 10.5194/gmd-13-1095-2020
Energy Self-Sufficient Households with Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles Are Feasible in Temperate Climate
Ursin Gstöhl and Stefan Pfenninger (2020).
PLOS ONEdoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227368
Sub-National Variability of Wind Power Generation in Complex Terrain and Its Correlation with Large-Scale Meteorology
Bryn Pickering, Christian M. Grams, Stefan Pfenninger (2020).
Environmental Research Lettersdoi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab70bd
2019Home-Made or Imported: On the Possibility for Renewable Electricity Autarky on All Scales in Europe
Tim Tröndle, Stefan Pfenninger, Johan Lilliestam (2019).
Energy Strategy Reviewsdoi: 10.1016/j.esr.2019.100388
The full result dataset is openly available. The code is available as a reproducible workflow on GitHub (archived on Zenodo).
The Dragon Awakens: Will China Save or Conquer Concentrating Solar Power?
Johan Lilliestam, Lana Ollier, Stefan Pfenninger (2019).
AIP Conference Proceedingsdoi: 10.1063/1.5117648
Estimation of Losses in Solar Energy Production from Air Pollution in China since 1960 Using Surface Radiation Data
Bart Sweerts, Stefan Pfenninger, Su Yang, Doris Folini, Bob van der Zwaan, Martin Wild (2019).
Nature Energydoi: 10.1038/s41560-019-0412-4
CMIP-5 Models Project Photovoltaics Are a No-Regrets Investment in Europe Irrespective of Climate Change
Johannes Müller, Doris Folini, Martin Wild, Stefan Pfenninger (2019).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
The method to accurately estimate PV potential based on climate data is included in our open-source tool GSEE as of version v0.3.0.
2018Calliope: A Multi-Scale Energy Systems Modelling Framework
Stefan Pfenninger and Bryn Pickering (2018).
Journal of Open Source Softwaredoi: 10.21105/joss.00825
Impacts of Inter-annual Wind and Solar Variations on the European Power System
Seán Collins, Paul Deane, Brian Ó Gallachóir, Stefan Pfenninger, Iain Staffell (2018).
Jouledoi: 10.1016/j.joule.2018.06.020
Will Policies to Promote Energy Efficiency Help or Hinder Achieving a 1.5 °C Climate Target?
Anthony Patt, Oscar van Vliet, Johan Lilliestam, Stefan Pfenninger (2018).
Energy Efficiencydoi: 10.1007/s12053-018-9715-8
The Increasing Impact of Weather on Electricity Supply and Demand
Iain Staffell and Stefan Pfenninger (2018).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
Opening the Black Box of Energy Modelling: Strategies and Lessons Learned
Stefan Pfenninger, Lion Hirth, Ingmar Schlecht, Eva Schmid, Frauke Wiese, Tom Brown, Chris Davis, Matthew Gidden, Heidi Heinrichs, Clara Heuberger, Simon Hilpert, Uwe Krien, Carsten Matke, Arjuna Nebel, Robbie Morrison, Berit Müller, Guido Pleßmann, Matthias Reeg, Jörn C. Richstein, Abhishek Shivakumar, Iain Staffell, Tim Tröndle, Clemens Wingenbach (2018).
Energy Strategy Reviewsdoi: 10.1016/j.esr.2017.12.002
2017Balancing Europe's Wind-Power Output through Spatial Deployment Informed by Weather Regimes
Christian M. Grams, Remo Beerli, Stefan Pfenninger, Iain Staffell, Heini Wernli (2017).
Nature Climate Changedoi: 10.1038/nclimate3338
High Solar Photovoltaic Penetration in the Absence of Substantial Wind Capacity: Storage Requirements and Effects on Capacity Adequacy
Fabrizio Fattori, Norma Anglani, Iain Staffell, Stefan Pfenninger (2017).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
Empirically Observed Learning Rates for Concentrating Solar Power and Their Responses to Regime Change
Johan Lilliestam, Mercè Labordena, Anthony Patt, Stefan Pfenninger (2017).
Nature Energydoi: 10.1038/nenergy.2017.94
Data is openly available from The paper was corrected on 22 March 2019; see the detailed corrections (underlying data not affected by correction).
Dealing with Multiple Decades of Hourly Wind and PV Time Series in Energy Models: A Comparison of Methods to Reduce Time Resolution and the Planning Implications of Inter-Annual Variability
Stefan Pfenninger (2017).
Applied Energydoi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.051
Energy Scientists Must Show Their Workings
Stefan Pfenninger (2017).
Naturedoi: 10.1038/542393a
The Importance of Open Data and Software: Is Energy Research Lagging Behind?
Stefan Pfenninger, Joseph DeCarolis, Lion Hirth, Sylvain Quoilin, Iain Staffell (2017).
Energy Policydoi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.11.046
2016Using Bias-Corrected Reanalysis to Simulate Current and Future Wind Power Output
Iain Staffell and Stefan Pfenninger (2016).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
Data is available from
Long-Term Patterns of European PV Output Using 30 Years of Validated Hourly Reanalysis and Satellite Data
Stefan Pfenninger and Iain Staffell (2016).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
Data is available from
2015Turning Points in Climate Change Adaptation
Saskia Werners, Erik van Slobbe, Tobias Bölscher, Albert Oost, Stefan Pfenninger, Giacomo Trombi, Marco Bindi, Marco Moriondo (2015).
Ecology and Societydoi: 10.5751/ES-07403-200403
Renewables, Nuclear, or Fossil Fuels? Scenarios for Great Britain's Power System Considering Costs, Emissions and Import Dependency
Stefan Pfenninger and James Keirstead (2015).
Applied Energydoi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.102
Controlling the Self-Organizing Dynamics in a Sandpile Model on Complex Networks by Failure Tolerance
Junjian Qi and Stefan Pfenninger (2015).
EPL (Europhysics Letters)doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/111/38006
Comparing Concentrating Solar and Nuclear Power as Baseload Providers Using the Example of South Africa
Stefan Pfenninger and James Keirstead (2015).
Energydoi: 10.1016/
2014Potential for Concentrating Solar Power to Provide Baseload and Dispatchable Power
Stefan Pfenninger, Paul Gauché, Johan Lilliestam, Kerstin Damerau, Fabian Wagner, Anthony Patt (2014).
Nature Climate Changedoi: 10.1038/nclimate2276
Governance Barriers to Renewable Energy in North Africa
Nadejda Komendantova, Stefan Pfenninger, Anthony Patt (2014).
The International Spectatordoi: 10.1080/03932729.2014.907627
Energy Systems Modeling for Twenty-First Century Energy Challenges
Stefan Pfenninger, Adam Hawkes, James Keirstead (2014).
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviewsdoi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.02.003
2013Vulnerability of Solar Energy Infrastructure and Output to Climate Change
Anthony Patt, Stefan Pfenninger, Johan Lilliestam (2013).
Climatic Changedoi: 10.1007/s10584-013-0887-0
Thresholds, Tipping and Turning Points for Sustainability under Climate Change
Saskia E Werners, Stefan Pfenninger, Erik van Slobbe, Marjolijn Haasnoot, Jan H Kwakkel, Rob J Swart (2013).
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainabilitydoi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.06.005
Knowledge and Information Needs of Adaptation Policy-Makers: A European Study
Susanne Hanger, Stefan Pfenninger, Magali Dreyfus, Anthony Patt (2013).
Regional Environmental Changedoi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0317-2
2012Introduction to Systems Analysis: Mathematically Modeling Natural Systems
Dieter M. Imboden and Stefan Pfenninger (2012).
Springer.  ISBN: 978-3-642-30638-9.